Sunday, May 24, 2020
Literary criticism, based off literary theory, is an informed, written analysis of a work of literature. Literary Theory means to understand the ways one can connect to the text, such as how archetypal criticism focuses on how symbols affect the story. To Kill a Mockingbird, a fictional novel written by Harper Lee, contains different literary theories. This practice makes the reader feel as though they can decide what certain symbols in the book mean. In the novel, Lee expresses archetypal criticism through the hero, the child, and the scapegoat. The hero archetype is shown through many characters. Link Deas was a hero to Mrs. Robinson when he exclaimed to Mr. Ewell, Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢First thing you can do, Ewell, is get your stinkin carcass off myÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Scout is one of them, shown when she, Ã¢â¬Å"I broke away from Jem and ran as fast as I could to Atticus.Ã¢â¬ (Lee 172). Scout running to Atticus proved to be very ignorant of her. It was a tight situation a nd ScoutÃ¢â¬â¢s blink decision reflects the child archetype. The saying, Ã¢â¬Å"ignorance is blissÃ¢â¬ , also shows her extreme innocence. Moreover, Jem was also a child, Ã¢â¬Å"It was JemÃ¢â¬â¢s turn to cry. His face was streaked with angry tearsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Lee XX). JemÃ¢â¬â¢s tears show his innocence, for it is very childlike to cry. He also shows ignorance, he should have been happy that some people in Maycomb were changing. Instead, he bawled his eyes out when things donÃ¢â¬â¢t go the way they should. Continually, Scout showed extreme innocence when, Ã¢â¬Å"When he was nearly thirteen, my brother, Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow.Ã¢â¬ (Lee XX). Scout thought that Jem was going to die when Jem had his arm broken. She had never seen someone unconscious before, and the unknown terrified her as much as death. This reflects her innocence, the mindset that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s something in the dark. Furthermore, the child archetype is shown through these characters. Lee also uses her characters as scapegoats in Maycomb. Boo was a scapegoat when Scout said, Ã¢â¬Å"People said he went out when the moon was down and peeped in through windowsÃ¢â¬ ¦ any small crime committed in Maycomb was him.Ã¢â¬ (Lee XX). Whenever something happened in Maycomb, the first name to come to mind was Boo. They used him as an excuse, and BooShow MoreRelatedTo Kill A Mockingbird Literary Analysis Essay1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s To Kill a Mockingbird demonstrates organic unity through the use of literary tools to create, maintain, and amplify the central theme. Lee constructs and develops the theme of social inequality by employing dialogue, irony, and an extended metaphor. Through dialogue, the townspeople show contempt for blacks, viewing them and anyone who treats them as equals as inferior. This is evident in the analysis of the conversations of Bob Ewell, Mrs. Dubose, and Francis Hancock where they referRead MoreTo Kill A Mockingbird Literary Analysis Essay1143 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAlmost 30 years later, To Kill a Mockingbird was published with hidden traces of fear getting the best of characters, most commonly without their knowledge. Based on the 1930s, Lee clearly led this book with RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s words in mind. Without the concept and representation of fear through the citizens of Maycomb, specifically Atticus Finch, Bob and Mayella Ewell, and Boo Radley, the worry, poor morals, and yearn for pity would not be present in Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s, To Kill a Mockingbird. Atticus Finch, theRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird Literary Analysis on Boo Radleys Relations with the Children822 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBoo - Who? You know that old man in every life based movie that no one seems to understand or talk to? Well, in To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, not only is the Ã¢â¬Å"old manÃ¢â¬ of the story misunderstood, but labeled a killer. This sets up an odd foundation for the relationship between the children and Boo at the start of the book. This relationship could be described at best as terrified. Scout mentions the Radley place in chapter 1 when she says; Ã¢â¬Å"inside the house lived a malevolent phantomÃ¢â¬ . ButRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Of Kill A Mockingbird 1271 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJourney Tasopulos Brannen ELA-8 19 April, 2015 Novel Analysis: To Kill A Mockingbird Selection: I selected this book because its the best book I have ever read. I read To Kill A Mockingbird last year and my class wrote an essay about this book, since I already know so much about this book I thought it would be a nice and quick read. I thought it would be a great enjoyment to refresh my memory of this epic book. I watched the movie soon after I read the whole book and it was very fun to pick outRead MoreAnimal Farm Paradox Analysis1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPublished Sample Analysis: In this part in Animal Farm, the pigs wish to enact rules that will benefit them at the expense of the other animals on the farm. In one of their rules, a paradox is created whose function is to expose the truth that despite governments claiming to treat everyone equally, they tend to favor certain groups over others. The paradox is created through the statement that some are more equal than others, which is a contradicting statement because if some are more equal thanRead MoreKill A Mocking Bird By Harper Lee Essay1581 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTo Kill a Mocking Bird is a written narrative by Harper Lee. The story is a linked sequence of conflict as seen through the eyes of a little girl named Scout. It looks back at a time when social injustice of prejudice was prevalent. The story if full of interesting characters, some good and some bad, but each very important to the plot of the story. It is very important to understand each of characterÃ¢â¬â¢s views and the plot of the story as it plays an important role in the overall theme of the storyRead MoreEssay To Kill a Mockingbird: An Analysis of Discrimination893 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird: An Analysis of Discrimination The most important theme of the 1960 Pulitzer Prize winning novel To Kill a Mockingbird is author Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s tenacious exploration of the moral nature of people. Lee tenaciously explores the moral nature of human beings, especially the struggle in every human soul between discrimination and tolerance. The novel is very effective in not only revealing prejudice, but in examining the nature of prejudice, how it works, and its consequencesRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird977 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLiterary Analysis for To Kill a Mockingbird Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s something in our world that makes men lose their heads- they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be fair if they tried. In our courts, when itÃ¢â¬â¢s a white manÃ¢â¬â¢s word against a black manÃ¢â¬â¢s word, the white always wins. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re ugly, but these are the facts of life.Ã¢â¬ ************ Along with the main theme of the story, racism, there are multiple other themes that are represented in the story. These include: the coexistence of good and evil, and importance of mortal educationRead MoreThe Setting Of Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1354 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLiterary Analysis Name: Amy Lyons Title: To Kill a Mockingbird Author: Harper Lee Setting: The setting of To Kill a Mockingbird is a small town in south Alabama called Maycomb County in the early 1930s. Point of View: Harper Lee s first, only novel is written in first person due to the fact we see the whole story through Scout s perspective. Theme: One of the crucial themes that Lee based the novel on was racism, which was an extremely controversial topic at the time the book was publishedRead MoreHow Harper Lees life and childhood influenced her writing of To Kill A Mockingbird2417 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesHARPER LEES VIEW OF THE 1930S AS A CHILD Harper Lee is well known for her great contributions towards modern society through her astounding book, To Kill a Mockingbird. The novel is read world-wide, in high schools and colleges because of its in-depth look at the social classes in the south during the 1930s. The book was influenced by society, in particular the social order of the south during her childhood. Lee grew up during this time of controversy which is why she writes so passionately about
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
An Analysis of Edgar Allan PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Raven Death. A strong topic, frequently but solemnly discussed. However, when I read Edgar Allan PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ , I was immediately captivated by the new angle brought to my attention regarding death. While the topic of death is usually associated with either sympathy or horror, Poe succeeded in portraying a feeling caught between the two; and at the same time bringing forth new feelings I would never thought to consider regarding death. These feelings reflect a sorrow so deep into a psychological madness, a feeling that the pain death brings has ruined one forever. After analyzing this poem I came to the conclusion that Edgar Allan PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ demonstrates that the sorrow the death of a loved one brings will stay with you forever. Poe communicated this theme through abstract language , tone, and allusion. The opening lines of The Raven identify the speaker as someone who feels tired and weak but is still awake in the middle of a gloomy night. He passes the time by reading a strange book of ancient knowledge. The first line of the poem contains alliteration of w in Ã¢â¬Å"while,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"weak,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"wearyÃ¢â¬ to produce the effect of unsteadiness. This line also sets the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s rhythmical pattern and provides the first example of the use of internal rhyme in Ã¢â¬Å"drearyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"weary.Ã¢â¬ The speaker tells of becoming more tired and beginning to doze but being wakened by a sound that he assumes is a quiet knock. Internal rhymes of Ã¢â¬Å"napping,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"tapping,Ã¢â¬ Show MoreRelatedEdgar Allan Poe s The Raven944 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto display the evils of humanity. Edgar Allan Poe, American Gothic poet, often wrote unsettling and dark poetry marrying the natural and supernatural in order to demonstrate difficult to grasp human emotio ns such as grief or depression. PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Raven is a powerful, yet dark piece of poetry that utilizes rhyme, meter, and symbolism to entertain fans of Gothic literature and completely pull them into the drama of the piece. In the opening stanzas of The Raven, Poe establishes the tone of the poemRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s The Raven2149 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesEdgar Allan Poe is considered one of the greatest literary writers, but he was highly under-appreciated during his time, Poe was constantly looked down upon and suffered a bad reputation due to rumors created by authors who disliked him. Poe was seen as arrogant, mad, and a melancholy man who had no friends and spent his time drinking and using drugs. Poe s success came when The Raven was published in 1845, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦though it made Poe popular in his day, it did not bring him significant financial successRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s The Raven2600 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesone of the world s most difficult forms of art. Many poets live throughout their lives and are never recognized for their achievements in their community. Edgar Allan Poe is one of the world s most renowned poets and wrote mainly in the form of poets and short stories. Some of Poe s most renown poems include The Raven, Annabel Lee. The poem The Raven deals with problems such as insanity and grief and the poem Annabel Lee deals with problems of grief and young love. Edgar Allan Poe wrote a lot aboutRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s The Raven1464 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesstartsÃ¢â¬ Edgar Allan Poe one of America s best known poet, and author who became mad in the sense of insanity after his wife Virginia died of Tuberculous. This made Poe spiral into a deep depression which he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to get himself out of because of the loss of his beloved Virginia. Poe had a very difficult, strange life, and a writing style like no one had ever seen before and that is what led him to be one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous poets, and author. Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ is what made Poe the wellRead MoreAnalysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Raven 1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJadon Vanderslice. Ms. Glass English 1213 5 February 2017 Poe Edgar Allan Poe, arguably one of the best poets ever, has wrote many great and deep-meaning poems, such as Ã¢â¬Å"Annabel Lee,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Dream Within a Dream.Ã¢â¬ Both putting off a rather dark image and goth-like elements, a way of writing Poe loved best. Mostly known for Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ , PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Poems all have real deep and mysterious meanings that make people think a bit more to figure it out. The way he expressed terror, the suspense, the heighteningRead MoreAnalysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Raven1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Edgar Allan Poe: The Raven Literature is a very powerful tool that is used to make a huge impact on society or in someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. As complex as the world, literature can appear in many forms using unique vernacular that expresses human endeavors. In some cases, social reform is Transcendentalism is an American literary, philosophical movement, promoting the idea of independent progress. The central idea is the optimistic viewpoint of humanity. People, men and women equally, have knowledgeRead MoreAn Analysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Raven1954 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesauthors, Edgar Allan Poe, Anne Bradstreet, and Emily Dickinson, had poems in which they explored the common theme of death. Their unique views on death, as reflected in their poems, tells us of the different ways people looked at death during their respective times. In this essay, I will explore and explain three poems of Edgar Allan Poe, and one from Anne Bradstreet and Emily Dickinson respectively, and then compare the differences between the three authors. In Edgar Allan PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Raven, he usesRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s The Raven788 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Edgar Allan Poe is one of the most successful writers of all time. Twelve of PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s works are known for their literary construction. The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe is one of the most famous poems in history and was first published in 1845. This is a poem that many readers may describe as dark, twisted, and even scary can be oddly moving and eye catching. What were the meanings in his masterpiece, and what did Poe want his readers to understand? PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s literary work The Raven shows literary elementsRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s The Raven1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe series of unfortunate events that Edgar Allan Poe experienced in his lifetime are what influenced his writing. His poetry heavily reflects the built-up emotions that he carried within himself. He repeatedly dealt with loss, rejection, and poverty throughout his entire life. When his wife, Virginia, was deat hly ill, Poe wrote his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ , in which the reader can observe the speaker slowly fall into madness while grieving the death of his love, similar to PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s own experiences. PoeÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s The Raven And The Black Cat1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe father of the modern horror story, Edgar Allan Poe was previously viewed as a drunken failure. Within PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s writings much of his own life riddled with guilt, anxiety, alcohol, depression and death shines through resulting in works that appear unrelated yet once dissected prove similar. This is true for PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s works Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Black CatÃ¢â¬ . PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s examples of gothic fiction share the use of the color black and a rapid digression of the narrator s sanity while seemingly unveiling PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s internal
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(84) " into two major parts \(1\) Organizational theories \(2\) Training and Development\." Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION: Syed Sajjad Ali Shah, Former Chief Justice of Pakistan said in a foreword of a book on Mass Media Laws and Regulations in Pakistan that: Ã¢â¬Å"All over the world, the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ right to acquire knowledge and information is increasingly being proclaimed and recognized as a fundamental right. The international human rights instruments as well as national constitutions and laws, acknowledge and safeguard this rightÃ¢â¬ WHAT IS ELECTRONIC MEDIA? Any channel of communication which serves different functions such as a wide range of entertainment or mass appeal and communicating news and information and advertisement messages through electronic medium is called Electronic media. The duty of media is to communicate massages from advertiser or vendors and serves it as a product or services to the consumer. We will write a custom essay sample on A foreword of a book on mass media laws and regulations or any similar topic only for you Order Now Types of media include print, electronic, outdoor and direct mail. Print media refers to magazine and news paper where as electronic media are usually referred as broadcast media that are radio and television including cable. BACKGROUND OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN PAKISTAN AND UK: In 1964 Television was first introduced in Pakistan. The only channel at that time was Pakistan Television (PTV) that lasts just for few hours everyday from evening till midnight to the viewers. The Channel introduced as a corporation of the state, where the government of Pakistan appointed its board of directors. The managing director was also appointed by the Government of Pakistan but with the approval of the boards. The Early channel includes STN, which was awarded by monopolistic contract with a private company called Network Television Market (NTM). In 1990 PTV was stroked by the financial mismanagement that causes a vast amount of debt and because of Hindi channels the rapidly reducing popularity among the viewers also reduced their advertising revenue. Pakistan Electronic Media is now regulated by Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA). It was established under PEMRA ordinance of 2002. The same month after establishment PEMRA issued 29 Radio licences for new private radio stations. The duty of this authority is to regulate and facilitate the private electronic media, and to improve the standards of information, education and entertainment and to expand the choice for the people of Pakistan including current affairs, news, religious knowledge, arts and culture and as well as science and technology. Where as in 1932 right before 32 years when television was first launched in Pakistan, BBC launched the first television channel in UK called Ã¢â¬Å"THE BBC TELEVISION SERVICE.Ã¢â¬ The BBC was sponsored by the public money build up from a TV licence fee collected from all UK households who had a television set. This fee was mandatory for all; failure to pay the fee was punishable by prosecution causing a fine or imprisonment. Until ITV was launched in 1955 BBC television service had a complete monopoly in UK. ABSTRACT: Training and development come under the umbrella of human resource management. This research will help analyse the current frameworks by human resource executives to improve training and development within Pakistan media industry and as well as look at the barriers facing by human resource department over the coming year and techniques for overcoming them. This research is a comparative study of training and development strategies in UK and Pakistan media Industry. With the purpose to look into the topic, I will compare and relate the techniques of UK media Industry with Pakistan media industry as how UK media industry deals with such kind of situations. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Training and development refers to pass on or to enhance the specific knowledge and skills of an employee. Training and development is essential to advance the current and future performance of the employee by boosting the ability of an employee to perform better through learning and training. Training usually offers to the operatives on the other hand development programmes are for the employees on upper level or positions. The Primary aim of training and development is to help the organisation reach its goal by increasing value to its key resources that is the employee of the organization. By training the employee we can enable them to perform well and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. The Basic aims of training and development are: It develops the ability of the employee and advances their performance. It helps to meet the organization with the future needs of human resource by help the staff to grow within the organization. And it also reduces the learning time for the employees and make sure that they become completely proficient as quickly and economically as possible. It has been seen that most of the researchers mainly focused their investigation on the role and responsibilities, role conflict and role ambiguity and some extent on the training and development programme, but this piece of research reflects the study of how training advance the level of understanding of the employee to their job and also how it helps in their career development. The main objective of the research is to look in to the developments in this important field of human resources particularly in electronic media industry in United Kingdom and Pakistan. Further to this we also look in to the organisations working without training and development department in some organisations. RESEARCH OVERVIEW: The goal of my research is to find out that how training and development can help improve the knowledge and skills of the employee within the organization especially in Pakistan electronic media by comparing it with the UK electronic industry mainly focus on the broadcasting media. The first chapter of my research will help to introduce the analysis of the study and also why it is useful to investigate further into this topic. The aim and objectives of the research study are also included in this chapter. Chapter two highlight the critical review of literature. The literature review will be divided into two major parts (1) Organizational theories (2) Training and Development. Chapter Three will cover up the research methodologies used for the research area. Chapter four will examine the data collection and analyse the types of information of the collected data. The Fifth Chapter will conclude the research and will suggest some advice and emphasize the limitations of the study. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW: A critical and in depth evaluation of a previous research is called Literature Review. It examines a wide range of literature concerned with the employee motivation which has major importance for organizational matters such as Training and development. The themes provided the framework based on: 1. Organisational theory which relates to employee in an organization 2. To designed the development strategies to reward and distinguish the employee input in television channels. We will look in this research how these set of organisational theories and approaches relate to understand the topic of research. ORGANIZATIONAL THEORIES: Dugan the famous Author said in 1985 that Ã¢â¬Å"training and development is alive and well and growing. In fact, it has grown to be a part of a much larger arena.Ã¢â¬ There are so many approaches to training and development by so many authors my research will mainly focus on the Classical Approach, The human relation approach, and the contingency theory. I will give a brief introduction of all of these theories in my research. THE CLASSICAL APPROACH: The Standard model to the organizational plan and management in the classical approach were based on the assumed basic numbers, which are written below. To be operated and structured there is at least one best approach for all the organizations. Classical approach was based on the legal managerial power and rule of law. We know financial reward is the best way to motivate employee to work and we will also examine what are other ways of motivating employee and get their maximum use. THE HUMAN RELATION APPROACH: The Third step in the development of modern management was the advancement in the attention to the human factors which has become known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Human Relation School of management.Ã¢â¬ It was introduced in 1930s as a response to the negative view of human nature suggested by the classical approach and against the mechanistic view of organization. Human Relation approach talks about the emotional behaviour of the people that people are more emotional rather than economical rational beings, where as organizations are cooperative social systems rather than mechanical ones; and also that organizations are composed of informal structure, and rules as well as formal procedures and practices. CONTINGENCY THEORY: This theory was first come in to view in the 1960s as a rejection of the Ã¢â¬Å"One best wayÃ¢â¬ approach. There are many types of the contingency theory. It is a set of behavioural theory that argues that there is no one best way of organising or leading and the leadership approach to one situation is not necessarily suitable to others. The Four most important suggestions of Contingency theory are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ There is no one best way to manage the organization. Ã¢â¬ ¢The plan and aim of the organization should be according to the environment. Ã¢â¬ ¢Effective organizations not only plan according to the environment but also fit between its subsystems. Ã¢â¬ ¢The organization should be properly designed and the management style should be suitable both to the tasks and the nature of the work group if the organization wants to satisfy its needs and requirements. ROLE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT According to Casse and Banahan (2007), Ã¢â¬Å"the different approaches to training and development need to be explored.Ã¢â¬ Training in an organization is mainly consisting of two parts: 1- Internal Training 2- External Training INTERNAL TRAINING: Internal training means a training session organised within the house by human resource department or giving training to a particular department by a senior staff or talented employee as a resource person. EXTERNAL TRAINING: The training which is arranged outside the organization by training institutes and consultants are called external training. Both the trainings are very essential as it helps preparing staff for greater challenges. THEORITICAL CONCEPT OF TRAINING: When the planning of a learning programme become a major concern, the theoretical concept of training becomes more significant. It helps determining the area where there is a space for further improvement and the training is required to achieve the goal. For any organization it is important to design the objectives and framework of training to achieve its corporate goal. There are countless theoretical concepts I will include few of them in my dissertation to make it clear to understand the objective of my research. I will try to briefly explain those concepts in my research proposal. Systematic training cycle is a stage based activity which begins with Training Needs Analysis (TNA) Jill Bowman John P. Wilson, (2008) Jill Bowman John P. Wilson, (2008) point out two definitions regarding (TNA) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Analysing training needs provides a focus and direction for the investment an organization has to make in its peopleÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Need for training exists in organizations when particular weaknesses need to me overcome by the application of systematic training. Therefore, before commencement of actual training session, it is very important to identify the training needs first. Jill Bowman John P. Wilson, (2008) The systematic training cycle has three stages. 1- Training Design 2- Training Delivery 3- Evaluation Any training programme in an organization has to be designed first once it is designed it needs to be implemented. Implementation is overwhelmed with certain problems such as managers at the first place are more action oriented but suddenly they get busy to engage in the training efforts. Secondly availability of the trainer who also knows the philosophy and objective of the company is difficult. And also scheduling the training programme around the present work is another problem. The final stage of the training and development programme is the evaluation of the programme. Evaluation of the programme helps determine the result. These set of classic theories and approaches will make the research topic more clearly for readers and how these relate to each other in media industry. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. The core task for any researcher to complete its research is to analyze the problem and to select that which research methodology to follow. It is a challenging endeavour and causes difficulties if the most suitable methodology is not selected. TYPES OF RESEARCH: 1- Primary Research 2- Secondary Research 3- Qualitative Research 4- Quantitative Research PRIMARY RESEARCH: In Primary research a researcher collects the data which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really exist. It can be done through surveys, questionnaire, interviews and observations. SECONDARY RESEARCH: Secondary research is to examining the existing data, it may be the mixture of information acquire by different authors and scholars and a summary or collation. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: Qualitative research tries to find out the Ã¢â¬Å"WHYÃ¢â¬ not Ã¢â¬Å"HOWÃ¢â¬ . It is about investigating the issues, answering the questions and understanding phenomena. The main methods uses in this research are observation, interviews and documentary analysis. It seeks to explore peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes, behaviours, value system, and lifestyles. It also focuses groups, in depth interviews like many other approaches but qualitative research also involves the analysis of any unstructured material including customerÃ¢â¬â¢s feedback forms, reports or media clips. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: Quantitative research technique enumerates the data by applying different mathematical and statistical methods. Quantitative research includes surveys and customers questionnaires. It is about knowing the opinion of the people in a way so you can produce an appropriate fact and statistic to guide you in making decision for future. You can only get the reliable statistical result by surveying people in a fairly large numbers and also ensure they are representative sample of your target market. CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS: At first the data may appear to be a mass of confusing, unrelated, accounts. But by Studying and coding (often I code the same materials several times just after Collecting them), the researcher begins to create order (Charmaz, 1983: 114) In Data Analysis researcher gathers a raw data and organize it so that useful information can be extracted from it. Raw data can be in variety of types including measurements, surveys, and observations. In data analysis process, the raw data organised in a way which will be useful. For Example, The result of surveys may b tallied so that we can see that how many people answer to the surveys and how they response to the questions. Data Analysis is an important step of the research process. The aim of data analysis is to define the qualitative and quantitative data that provides learner to develop knowledge and skills in data analysis. It also supports the development of critical appraisal skills by considering the critical review. COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: In this stage I will try to analyze the primary data which I will collect from different television channels. I will try to collect data from BBC and Pakistan television channels including GEO TV Network, Express News and AAJ TV. I will also do the surveys and make the questionnaire for the employee working in electronic media industry and also a separate interview questions for HR experts associated with the industry. I will also analyze the data and the information collected through surveys by focusing on the objective of my research and will try to analyse them in a very systematic way, it is very important as it will help me to draw a valid conclusion and clarify the aim and objectives of my research. TIME LINE FOR DISSERTATION: A dissertation is an extensive piece of academic writing. The timeline make sure that every step is completed at a given time. For successful achievement of a dissertation there has to be a time line. Month 1 Month 2 Month 3 TASKS Preliminary Research Define research questions/objectives Work on methodology and finish rough drafts of methodology Library Work Preparing Questionnaires, and survey questions Refine Dissertation Methodology Write literature review Write Introduction Research paper writing References and Bibliography Polish format of research proposal CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION: This research adds value in quite a lot of ways; firstly it contributes a better understanding on some vital attributes of Training and Development specifically in Pakistan and UK electronic media Industry. Secondly it provides insight the attitude and behaviour of an employee in the organization and why they need training. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of training in the efficiency of an employee, in how the training gives confidence to perform there desire task in their routine work. How to cite A foreword of a book on mass media laws and regulations, Essay examples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Financial Accounting for Management Business Operations. Answer: 1: A. Acquisition Analysis and Consolidation Journal Entries Acquisition Analysis for the year ending 30 June, 2016. Amount $ Fair value of Net assets acquired Total Assets Acquired 627,000.00 Less: Total Liabilities (221,300.00) Net Assets 405,700.00 Purchase Consideration 356,000.00 Capital Reserve (Net Assets- Purchase consideration) 49,700.00 Table 1: Acquisition analysis (Source: Created by author) Joan Ltd had acquired 100% shares of Jewel Ltd in the financial year 2011 against the purchase consideration $356,000. As the companys acquired net asset was more than the consideration, the difference is considered as a capital reserve on consolidation. Since then the management of has analyzed consistent rise in the retained earnings of the group company. Liabilities and other dues on long term loan were also consistent in the past five years. Apart from these, the products of Jewel Ltd providing a good share in the current market and by acquiring it to further 100%, management is of the view that it would lead to the growth of the business as a whole. Upon examining the product line, business operations, organizational members structure of both the companies, it has been concluded that there is compatibility in the operating functions and the acquisition would not lead to incur high expenses whether in relation to arrangement needs or sale of labor. Further, it was agreed between the companies that the holding company Joan Ltd would be abide Corporation Law and principles of accounting standards to recognize the consolidated financial statements (Yang et al. 2015). Accordingly, any intercompany sales and accounts balance would be settled as per the accounting standard on consolidation of IFRS. Journal Entries For the year ended 30 June 2016 For the group Joan Ltd and Jewel Ltd Amount $ Particulars Debit Credit 1 Jewel Ltd Dr 42,000.00 To Sale of Inventory 42,000.00 (Being inventory sold by Joan Ltd to Jewel Ltd during the year 30 June 2016) 2 Joan Ltd Dr 65,000.00 To Sale of Inventory 65,000.00 (Being inventory sold by Jewel Ltd to Joan Ltd during the year 30 June 2016) 3 Unrealized Profit Dr 13,000.00 To Inventory 13,000.00 (Being Inventory produced by Jewel Ltd at $20,000 that was sold to Joan Ltd $33,000) 4 Unrealized profit Dr 2,000.00 To Inventory 2,000.00 (Being Inventory produced by Joan Ltd at $5,000 that was sold to Jewel Ltd $7,000) 5 Bank A/c Dr 20,000.00 To Inventory 20,000.00 (Being inventory sold by the Joan and Jewel group to the external parties cost of which was $15,000) 6 Inventory A/c Dr 5,000.00 To Profit on sale on inventory 5,000.00 (Being profit incurred on sale on inventory assuming the sales had taken place at the recorded value) 7 Unrealized profit Dr 36,000.00 To Plant and machinery 36,000.00 (Being an item of plant sold to Joan Ltd By Jewel Ltd in the beginning of the year at $116,000 whereas the carrying cost was $80,000) 8 Joan Ltd Dr 26,500.00 To Bank A/c 26,500.00 (Being management fees paid by Jewel Ltd to Joan Ltd during the year 30 June 2016) 9 Full Goodwill method Goodwill A/c Dr 0.00 Asset A/c Dr 627,000.00 To Liabilities A/c 221,300.00 To Non- controlling interest 0.00 To Capital Reserve 49,700.00 (Being capital reserve determined and recognized as Full Goodwill Method) Table 2: Journal Entries (Source: Created by author) Note 1: Since the acquisition of shares by Joan Ltd was on 1st July 2016 therefore it is assumed that the acquisition journal entries have already been made in the financial year 2011- 2012. Note 2: As the acquisition is of 100% between Joan Ltd and Jack Ltd, hence minority interest or non- controlling interest would not arise. Note 3: The determination of goodwill or capital reserve will be same in both the Full Goodwill Method and Partial Goodwill Method because the acquisition is of 100% and there is no minority interest exists. B. Consolidation Worksheet Financial Statement (Extract) Particulars Joan Jewel Combine Elimination Current assets Accounts receivable 55,400.00 84,500.00 139,900.00 Inventory 105,000.00 38,000.00 143,000.00 (143,000.00) Non-current assets Land and buildings 278,000.00 326,000.00 604,000.00 Plant - at cost 299,850.00 355,800.00 655,650.00 (135,000.00) Less: Accumulated depreciation (85,750.00) (138,800.00) (224,550.00) 55,000.00 Investment in Jewel Ltd 356,000.00 - 0.00 Equity Retained earnings 358,000.00 244,200.00 602,200.00 Share capital 350,000.00 - 350,000.00 Current liabilities Accounts payable 81,700.00 76,300.00 158,000.00 Tax payable 66,300.00 25,000.00 91,300.00 Non-current liabilities Loans 152,500.00 120,000.00 272,500.00 Table 3: Financial position combination (Source: Created by author) Appropriation of Profit Particulars Capital Profit $ Revenue Profit $ Balance as on 1 .07.2011 xxx 80,000.00 Less: Unrealized Profit - 51,000.00 Add: Unrealized Loss - - Total 29,000.00 Holding co. (100%) 29,000.00 Cost of Control Investment 356,000.00 Less: Share capital 200,000.00 (200,000*100%) Less: Pre acquisition Profits - Goodwill 156,000.00 Table 4: Consolidation workings (Source: Created by author) 2: A. Relationship between Bosco Ltd and Circus Ltd According to International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 10, definition of subsidiary includes a company controlled by another company. Such control can be gained if the holding of shares or voting rights is more than 50%. The parent company will have the power to control and govern the financial and operational part of the subsidiary for better business decision. On the contrary, associate is defined in International Accounting Standard (IAS) 28 as the significant influence of the investor over an associate company (Exner et al. 2015). It means that the investor has the right to participate in the business and financial decision but cannot control the policies and regulations. Such significant influence is gained by purchasing shares or voting rights for more than 20% but less than 50%. In the given case, Bosco acquired 80% of the issued securities of Circus Ltd on 1 July 2014. Considering the principles of IFRS and IAS the relationship between Bosco and Circus Ltd is that of parent- subsidiary because the acquired voting right by Bosco is more than 50%. It is not necessary to acquire 100% securities for having parents- subsidiary relationship as acquisition of 100% securities would mean wholly owned subsidiary of the acquirers. B. Acquisition Analysis and Consolidation Journal Entries Acquisition Analysis for the year ending 30 June, 2016. Amount $ Fair value of Net assets acquired Total Assets Acquired 1,400,000.00 Less: Total Liabilities 223,000.00 Net Assets 1,177,000.00 Purchase Consideration (80%) 890,000.00 Capital Reserve (Net Assets- Purchase consideration) 287,000.00 Table 5: Acquisition analysis (Source: Created by author) Bosco Ltd acquired 80% of the issued securities of Circus Ltd on 1 July 2014 for consideration of $ 890,000. On acquisition the company gained capital reserve because the value of net asset is more than the purchase consideration. It was observed that the Circus Ltd had good market share and acquiring the company by Bosco Ltd would provide a positive impact on the growth and sustainability for the group company. Observing the acquisition price it was noted that the stocks of Circus Ltd indicates true and fair price and there was no inflation been added to the stocks or assets of the company. all the events between the companies post consolidation was agreed to be taken under mutual consent and the companies agreed to abide by the regulations of Corporation Law and Accounting Standards. Journal Entries For the year ended 30 June 2016 For the group Bosco Ltd and Circus Ltd Amount $ Particulars Debit Credit 1 Circus Ltd Dr 43,000.00 To Sale of Inventory 43,000.00 (Being inventory sold by Bosco Ltd to Circus Ltd during the year 30 June 2016) 2 Bosco Ltd Dr 120,000.00 To Sale of Inventory 120,000.00 (Being inventory sold by Circus Ltd to Bosco Ltd during the year 30 June 2016) 3 Unrealized profit Dr 14,000.00 To Inventory 14,000.00 (Being Inventory produced by Circus Ltd at $70,000 that was sold to Bosco Ltd $84,000) 4 Goodwill impairment loss Dr 5,000.00 To Investment in Circus Ltd 5,000.00 (Being impairment on acquired goodwill recognized by the group on consolidation) 5 Unrealized profit Dr 88,000.00 To Plant and machinery 88,000.00 (Being an item of plant sold to Circus Ltd By Bosco Ltd in the beginning of the year at $190,000 whereas the carrying cost was $102,000) 6 Circus Ltd Dr 300,000.00 To Bank A/c 300,000.00 (Being loan provided to Circus Ltd by Bosco Ltd during the year 30 June 2016) Bank A/c Dr 9,000.00 To Interest on loan 9,000.00 (Being interest on loan received from Circus Ltd for the year 30 June 2016) 7 Partial goodwill method Goodwill A/c Dr 0.00 Asset A/c Dr 1,400,000.00 To Liabilities A/c 223,000.00 To Non- controlling interest 400,000.00 To purchase consideration 890,000.00 To Bargain purchase (113,000.00) (Being bargain purchase determined and recognized as Full Goodwill Method) 8 Income to non- controlling interest Dr 164,600.00 To Non- controlling interest 164,600.00 (Being profit on minority shareholding on consolidation recognized in the books of group company) Table 6: Journal Entries (Source: Created by author) Consolidation Worksheet Appropriation of Profit Particulars Capital Profit $ Revenue Profit $ Balance as on 1 .07.2014 xxx 425,000.00 Less: Unrealized Profit - 102,000.00 Add: Unrealized Loss - - Total 323,000.00 Holding co. (80%) 258,400.00 Non- controlling interest (20%) 64,600.00 Cost of Control Investment 890,000.00 Less: Share capital 400,000.00 (500,000*80%) Less: Pre acquisition Profits - Goodwill 490,000.00 Minority Interest Share Capital (20%) 100,000.00 Profits of Subsidiary 64,600.00 Total 164,600.00 Table 7: Working notes (Source: Created by author) C. Acquisition Analysis under Full Goodwill Method Acquisition analysis using full goodwill method For the year ended 30 June 2016 Amount $ Fair value of net identifiable assets of Circus Ltd 1,177,000.00 (1,400,000- 223,000) Less: Fair value of non- controlling interest 200,000.00 Net asset acquired 977,000.00 Less: Purchase consideration 890,000.00 Bargain purchase/ (Goodwill) 87,000.00 Table 8: Acquisition analysis (Source: Created by author) 3: Acquisition Analysis Cricket Ltd invested in 40% of the issued share capital of Charlie Ltd for an amount of $160,000. Since the acquisition is of 40%, Cricket Ltd gained significance influence over Charlie Ltd and is required to recognize the financial information by following equity method of AASB 128. It has been observed that the investee company, Charlie Ltd had retained earnings of $95,000 which increased to $257,000 in the year 2016 post investment. Apart from that, the investee company also has good market share as well as better investment opportunity for wealth maximization (Yang et al. 2015). Acquisition Analysis Amount $ Investment 160,000.00 Cricket's share on income after tax and before dividend payment of Charlie Ltd ($2791,000 * 40%) 1,116,400.00 Cricket's share on dividend payment by Charlie Ltd ($200,000 * 40%) 80,000.00 Table 9: Acquisition analysis (Source: Created by author) Journal entries for accounting Cricket Ltd's investment in Charlie Ltd For the year ended 30 June 2017 Amount $ Debit Credit 1 Investment on 1 July 2015 Investment in Charlie Ltd Dr 160,000.00 To Bank A/c 160,000.00 (Being 40% shares acquired and invested in Charlie Ltd) 2 Income on Investment 30 June 2016 Investment in Charlie Ltd Dr 1,013,600.00 To Income from Equity 1,013,600.00 ($2,534,000 * 40%) (Being share of income @40% has been recognized) 3 Dividend received 80,000.00 Bank A/c Dr 80,000.00 To Investment in Charlie ltd (Being share of dividend received has been recognized during the year) 4 Income on Investment 30 June 2017 Investment in Charlie Ltd Dr 1,036,400.00 To Income from Equity 1,036,400.00 ($2,591,000 * 40%) (Being share of income @40% has been recognized) 5 Tax Expenses Income tax expense Dr 639,000.00 To Bank A/c 24,000.00 To Deferred tax liability 615,000.00 (Being tax expenses at the rate of 30% recognized for dividends received and income on investment during the year) 6 Unrealized profits Investment in Charlie Ltd Dr 2,000.00 To Inventory A/c 2,000.00 (Being profit on sale of inventory costing at $4,000 to Cricket Ltd for $6,000 has been eliminated and recognized) 7 Consolidated income A/c Dr 3,000.00 To Investment in Charlie ltd 3,000.00 (Being unrealized profit on sale of inventory to Charlie Ltd for $12000, costing $9,000 has been cancelled) Table 10: Journal Entries (Source: Created by author) Working Notes: Appropriation of Profit Particulars Capital Profit $ Revenue Profit $ Balance as on 1 .07.2015 xxx 95,000.00 Less: Unrealized Profit - 3,000.00 Add: Unrealized Loss - - Total 92,000.00 Holding co. (40%) 36,800.00 Table 11: Analysis of profit (Source: Created by author) Cost of Control Investment $160,000.00 Less: Share capital $80,000.00 (200,000*40%) Less: Pre acquisition Profits - Goodwill $80,000.00 Table 12: Cost of control (Source: Created by author) Reference List: Exner, A., Bartels, L.E., Windhaber, M., Fritz, S., See, L., Politti, E. and Hochleithner, S., 2015. Constructing landscapes of value: Capitalist investment for the acquisition of marginal or unused landThe case of Tanzania.Land Use Policy,42, pp.652-663. Yang, L., Grossmann, I.E., Mauter, M.S. and Dilmore, R.M., 2015. Investment optimization model for freshwater acquisition and wastewater handling in shale gas production.AIChE Journal,61(6), pp.1770-1782.
Wednesday, April 1, 2020
Review Questions Solutions Paper Structuring and refining the requirements are completed independent from the users, although you may need to occasionally contact users to clarify some issue overlooked during analysis. Finally, you ask users to review and evaluate the prototype. After reviewing the prototype, users may accept the design or request that changes be made. If changes are needed, you will repeat the construction-evaluate-refinement cycle until the design is accepted. Usually, several iterations of this cycle occur during the design of a single form or report. The major deliverables produced from the process of signing forms and reports are the creation of design specifications. A design specification includes a narrative overview, a sample design, and a testing and usability assessment section. Some specification intimation may be irrelevant when designing some forms and reports. For example, the design off simple ;yes/No selection form may be so straightforward that no usability assessment would be needed. Also, much of the narrative overview may be unneeded, unless it avgas used to highlight some exception that must be considered during implementation 2. To which initial questions must the analyst gain answers to in order to build an initial prototype of a system output? The initial questions are listed in Table 8-1; these questions include: (I) who will use this form or report; (2) what is the purpose of the form or report; (3) when is the form or report needed and used; (4) where does the form or report need to be delivered and used; and (5) how many people need to use or view the form or report? 3. How should textual information be formatted on a help screen? The guidelines for formatting a help screen are based on the general guidelines for formatting text. We will write a custom essay sample on Review Questions Solutions specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Review Questions Solutions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Review Questions Solutions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The general guidelines for formatting text are presented in Table 8-4; these guidelines govern case, spacing, justification, hyphenation, and abbreviations. 4. What type of labeling can you use in a table or list to improve its usability? The following labeling guidelines can improve the usability of a table or list: (1) all columns and rows should have meaningful labels; (2) labels should he separated from other information by using highlighting: and (3) redisplay labels when the data extends beyond a single screen or page, S. What column, row, and text formatting issues are important when designing tables and lists? The guidelines for formatting columns, rows, and text in a table or list include: (l) sorting in a meaningful order (e. G. , ascending, descending, or alphabetic); (2) placing a blank line between every five rows in long columns; (3) sorting vertically similar information displayed in multiple columns (that is, read from top to bottom, not left to right); (4) placing at least two spaces between columns; (5) allowing white space on printed reports for the user to write notes; (6) using a single typeface, except for emphasis; (7) using the same family of typefaces within and cross displays and reports; and (8) avoiding overly fancy fonts. Describe how numeric, textual, and alphanumeric data should be formatted in a table or list. The guidelines for formatting numeric, textual, and alphanumeric data in a table or list include: (1) right justifying numeric data and aligning columns by decimal points or some other delimiter; (2) left justifying textual data and using a short line length, usually 30-?40 characters per line (this is what newspapers use, and it is easier to speed read); and (3) breaking long sequences of alphanumeric data onto small groups of three to four characters each. 7. Provide some examples where variations in user, task, system, and environmental characteristics might impact the design of system forms and reports. User-related concerns include experience, skills, motivation, education, and personality. Task-related concerns include time pressure, cost of errors, and work duration, The system platform is a system-related concern, and lighting, sound, and task interruptions are environment-related concerns, 8. Describe the process of designing interfaces and dialogues. What deliverables are produced from this process? Are these deliverables the same for all types of system projects? Why or why not? The design process is a user-focused activity that typically follows a prototyping approach. First, you must gain an understanding of the intended user and task objectives by collecting initial requirements during requirements determination. After collecting the initial requirements, you Structure and refine this information into an initial prototype. Structuring and refining the requirements are completed independent from the users, although you may need to occasionally intact users to clarify some issue overlooked during analysis. Finally, you ask users to review and evaluate the prototype. After reviewing the prototype, users either accept the design or request changes. If changes are needed, single interface or dialogue. Design specifications are the primary deliverables; these documents include a narrative overview, sample design, testing and usability assessment, and dialogue sequence outline. 9. List and describe the functional capabilities needed in an interface for effective entry and navigation, Which capabilities are most important? Why? Will this be the same for all systems? Why or why not? The functional capabilities include cursor control capabilities, editing capabilities, exit capabilities, and help capabilities: Table 8- 6 summarizes these capabilities, When designing the navigation procedures within your system, flexibility and consistency are primary concerns. Users should be able to freely move forward and backward or to any desired data entry fields. Consistency extends to the selection of keys and commands. Each key or command should have only one function, and this function should be consistent wrought the entire system and across systems if possible. The most important capabilities will vary from system to system. For a given system, consistency is the most important capability. System capabilities will, unfortunately, vary from system to eastern II_Describe the general guidelines for structuring data-entry fields. Can you think of any instances when it would be appropriate to violate these guidelines? Table 8-?7 summarizes the guidelines for structuring data entry fields. Some of the design guidelines may be violated in certain circumstances. Gore example, a help system might be omitted from a very impel system or a system designed to be used by a single user or small group. II. Describe four types Of data errors. Sources of data errors include appending, truncating, transcription, and transposing. Appending adds additional characters to a field; truncating loses characters from a field; transcription errors enter invalid data into a field; transposing reverses the sequence of one or more characters in a field. Describe the types of system feedback. Is any form of feedback more important than the others? Why or why not? Three types of system feedback are issued in the chapter; these include status information, prompting cues, and error or warning messages. No single method can be deemed most important because each is critical to an effective design. 13,Describe the general guidelines tort designing usable help. Can you think of any instances when it would be appropriate to violate these guidelines? Table 8-12 presents the general guidelines for designing usable help. Some of the design guidelines may be violated in certain circumstances. For example, a help system might be omitted from a very simple system or a system designed to be used by a single user or mall group. 14 What steps do you need to follow when designing a dialogue? Of the guidelines for designing a dialogue, which is most important? Why? The three major steps in dialogue design are: (I) design the dialogue sequence; (2) build a prototype; and (3) assess usability. A case could be made for the importance Of all steps. Yet, designing the dialogue (With the input Of the user) is likely the most important step because this is where you collect and structure the users requirements. 15. Describe What is meant by a cookie crumb. HOW do these help prevent users from getting lost? A cookie crumb is a technique for showing users where they are in a Web site: a series of tabs are placed on a Web page showing the users where they are and where they have been. By showing users where they are in a Web site, cookie crumbs keep users from getting lost; users can just click on a hyperlink to return home. 16,Describe why you might want to use lightweight graphics on some Web pages and large detailed graphics on others, Often users do not want to wait for large, color images to download, especially if they have a slow modem. If the time is excessive, the users will often leave the site, Lightweight graphics download much faster and give the user a thumbnail sketch to the product.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Racial diversity in The United States Introduction The United States have witnessed tremendous changes and developments in its racial and ethnic composition in the last three centuries owing to factors such as colonization, immigration and more recently the economic globalization.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Racial diversity in The United States specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the world has experienced massive integration over the years, the United States remains the only country where the bulk of the integration has occurred. More importantly, the racial diversity has become a common determinant in the business environment with major implications on economic fortunes of locally and foreign based companies. The success of integration of immigrants is believed to influence the market dynamic and consumer expectations. In addition, integration of races has elicited much debate among racial sociologists with some supporting heterogene ity while others are keen on the homogenization of all races to form an American culture. This research paper will offer the differing perspectives of the melting pot and the salad bowl images in interracial relations. The paper will provide a brief description of the two metaphors and relate them to appropriate theories of relations before discussing their strengths and limitations. To start with, it is imperative to define the two metaphors in order to have a clear picture of what they represent in the American society. The salad bowl is a concept widely used to denote the successful incorporation of divergent and differing cultural values and norms in a different setting such as the United States. Although some form of integration occurs in the society, the specific cultures do not overly merge to form a homogenous culture, but retain their distinct values. On the other hand, the melting point has been regularly been used to bring out the tendency of a society losing its heteroge neity of cultures thereby embracing a common and homogenous cultural concept. The assimilation of the cultural diversity occasioned by massive influx of immigrants to the United States in the later stages of 18th century is a good example of the melting pot concept (Yitzhaki Schechtman, 2009, p. 140).Advertising Looking for research paper on ethnicity studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More American culture from 18th to early 20th century can be explained through the melting pot concept owing to the fact that major developments and realignments on socio-economic and political dynamic occurred during this period. The concept has been widely been regarded as among the pillars that helps the American people enjoy much success in social and economic circles. Taking into consideration that America has its origin in immigration, the massive influx of foreigners from Europe pitched camp in the United States thereby settin g a foundation of the American culture. The arrival of the Africans and Latinos as slaves followed by the Hispanics brought a rich cultural mix (Henderson, 2009, p. 11). Although interracial relations were limited owing to stereotyping and legal challenges, considerable merger of the culture occurred in the early years of immigration buoyed by the close relationships that formed between the employers, farmers, slaves and the tradesmen. Although segregation based on ethnicity and economic might was prevalent, integration gained momentum in the years after American independence especially in major cities such as New York (White, 1989, p. 28). The interaction of the different ethnic groups within the various neighborhoods and in the workplaces increased the speed of assimilation of cultural diversity to form a distinct and dynamic American culture. Rosaldo (1994, p. 405) asserted that assimilation started at the lowest level where a lot of social mobility is observed and improved as th e immigrants improved their social status. Increasing discontent by the opponents in the first half of 20th century fuelled by inequalities in the social environment resulted in the embracement of the salad bowl. The legalization of interracial marriages took effect in 1967 and the enactment of the immigration Act of 1q965 meant that an increasingly number of immigrants entered the country thereby imparting negatively on their integration in the American culture. The desire of the minority groups from Asia and Latin America to retain their identity and heritage meant an end to the homogeneity of the American society thereby resulting in the wide application of the salad bowl concept (Henderson, 2009, p. 23).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Racial diversity in The United States specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Currently, America enjoys the most dynamic culture with almost all aspects of its socio-economic st ructures having a well balanced representation brought about by political and social changes of the preceding decades. A walk through the streets of major cities reveals a huge presence of Hispanics and African Americans in addition to the Asians and blacks which has made America to be regarded as a land where plurality of races. In view of the above, the melting pot has been widely used to refer to the act where all immigrants are introduced into the large pot, which is America, and are assimilated gradually just like the components of the pot melt away to form a common item. The act of melting down of cultural beliefs to embrace the American model is widely observed in language, dressing and lifestyle. In contrast, the salad bowl offers a current representation of the American society (Banton, 1998, p. 54). The salad bowl consists of several ingredients that bring their unique tastes and flavors. It is worth noting that an increase in the ingredients commensurate to a rich and oft en tasty salad. The presence of the ingredients as entities is imperative to achieve the delicacy of the salad. Likewise, America is allowing large numbers of immigrants into its territory each year thereby resulting in influx of a variety of cultures. The upsurge of immigrants in the last few decades meant the segregation of the newcomers, who in turn delved to retain their identities, hence forming a mosaic type of scenario. This has led to the emergence of distinctive ethnic enclaves that are bound by the American vision thus forming a whole entity, just like in the salad (LeMay, 2008). Proponents of multiculturalism have been in the forefront in championing the salad bowl due to their desire for the society to retain the diversity offered b y this concept. On the other hand, the melting pot has played a major role in uniting people of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds thereby making it popular in places experiencing conflict. The melting pot is therefore associated with assimilation whereby the larger society is protected from receiving undue influence from the some cultures. Therefore, melting pot is associated with assimilation while the salad bowl is close to the theories of multiculturalism (Aguirre Jr. Turner, 2008, p. 65). In addition, melting pot has lost relevance in America owing to changes in social dynamic s and technological advancements although it still holds clout in other countries where cohesion among different ethnic populations is needed to ensure stability. In contrast, salad bowl has become a modern day concept that allows retention of cultural diversity in the society thereby creating more avenues of influencing the social economic dynamics.Advertising Looking for research paper on ethnicity studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Theories of racial relations Theories of racial relations have continually served to shed light on the different perspectives of the melting pot and salad bowl. In fact, they offer a systematic approach that enhances the understanding of the holistic study of races in relation to the social environment particularly with regard to concerns over discrimination and conflicts. Assimilation theories have been widely utilized to expound on the concepts behind the melting pot in interracial relations. Park (1930, p. 183) asserted in his theory that the immigrants make an initial contact with the larger society, similarly to introduction to the large pot. Close interaction occurs during the first few months and years before a competitive phase ensues whereby the ethnic populations are often faced with dwindling resources and opportunities resulting in stiff competition. Scarcity of employment opportunities and social amenities brings about discontent between the two competing sides to an ex tent where ethnic conflict occur (Kivisto, 2004, p. 76). In addition, the immigrants are entirely blamed for the social problems by the larger society thus providing more time for interaction whereby learning of each other ways take place (Aguirre Jr. Turner, 2008). In comparison to the components of the melting pot, the immigrants together with their descendants surrender and start learning the norms of their new environment thereby improving their relations with their other races. Incorporation in joint ventures is achieved when close interaction occurs at workplaces and social activities resulting into sharing of cultural values. In tandem with the melting pot concept, the merger of the two cultural entities led to the invention of a distinct cultural identity (LeMay, 2008). It is worth noting that the assimilation process is effective only when conducive predisposing factors that promote interaction of the various ethnic populations. However, the assumption that assimilation is a relentless process while failing to explain the impact of the discriminatory forces makes the theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s premise weak (Yitzhaki Schechtman, 2009, p. 148). The embracement of salad bowl in mid 20th century provided a good basis on which the population dynamics could be explained. The salad bowl concepts shares similarities with the pluralism theories due to their assertion of retention of distinct identities in advent of social pressures to homogenize. The pluralism theory champions the preservation of cultural and organizational structures while maintaining the behavioral characteristics as a form of curtailing discriminatory efforts towards a certain group. In tandem with the contents of the salad bowl, pluralism theory is concerned with the perpetuation of the ethnic identities hence creating a pluralistic society that is unique due to its mosaic nature (LeMay, 2008). Pluralism theory realizes the inevitability of change thereby creating avenues of minimal adjustments in the cultural values with the sole aim of shielding the small populations from discrimination. While minimal deviation from the norms is advised, the theory asserts that retention of elements that denote the ethnic heritage should always precedence at all times. More importantly, the theory supports the view that heterogeneity and diversity offers better prospects in terms of development of cultural values (Spiro, 1955, p. 1234). Despite serving to complement the salad bowel, pluralism theory is criticized for failing to take into consideration the broader social forces that perpetuate discrimination; its explanation is premised on ethno genesis. Strengths and limitations The melting pot set the foundation of the formation of an American culture that has unified the people irrespective of the differing demographic variables. The cultural assimilation concept involving all the ethnic identities ensures the resulting cultural dispensation receives wide acceptance from the masses (Yitzh aki Schechtman, 2009, p. 143). However, the concept fails to take into account the implications of the disparities between the various ethnic populations in terms of economic power and numbers. Although cultural assimilation occurs, a high tendency of segregation and homogeneity has been observed based on ethnic origin. It is not uncommon to find distinct neighborhoods habited by a certain ethnic population, and such examples are evident in majority of the cities. In addition, the skewed distribution of new immigrants in terms of settlement denotes impediments to the overall integration of the American society at social, cultural and economic levels while taking into account the existence of ethnic poverty and dispersion (Yitzhaki Schechtman, 2009, p. 143). Empowerment of the minority groups is acknowledged by the salad bowl where they are provided with an opportunity to preserve their identities as a way of cushioning themselves from discrimination. More importantly, improved liv ing and relations within and without the cultural ethnic enclave is efficient owing to the mutual respect developed amongst the populations. However, the tendency of manipulating the supportive environment through legislative or social changes aimed at disadvantaging a certain group is rife. Loss of diversity and eventual demise of variety through exposing the minority groups would exacerbate the situation thereby rendering them vulnerable to massive challenges in the society (White, 1989, p. 89). Conclusion Taking into the variations in the ethnic populations of the immigrants, the eventual integration in the American way of life has become a difficult task. While opposing views exist between the two concepts, their success in improving interracial relations has proved a success story. However, the holistic and unpredictable nature of the American socio, economic and political environment has eroded some achievements leading to fragmentation of the society at the local level. Moreo ver, manipulation of the balancing mechanisms would water down the fruits of salad bowl and melting pot. It is therefore imperative for the American people to remain vigilant in ensuring the premises behind the two models are retained thus ensuring peaceful coexistence and improved interracial relations. Reference List Aguirre Jr., A. Turner, J. (2008). American Ethnicity: The Dynamics and Consequences of Discrimination. New Jersey: McGraw. Banton, M. (1998). Racial Theories. Cambridge: Cambridge university press. Henderson, S. (2009). Aspects of American History. New York: Prentice Hall. Kivisto, P. (2004). What Is The Canonical Theory Of Assimilation? Robert E. Park and His Predecessors. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 40(2), 149Ã¢â¬â163. LeMay, M. (2008).The Perennial Struggle: race, ethnicity, and minority group relations in the United States. New Jersey: McGraw. Park, R. E. (1930). Assimilation, social. In E. R. A. Seligman A. Johnson (Eds.), Encyclopedi a of the social sciences (pp. 281Ã¢â¬â283). New York: Macmillan Company. Rosaldo, R. (1994). Cultural Citizenship and Educational Democracy. Cultural Anthropology, 9(3), 402-411. Spiro, M. (1955). The Acculturation of American Ethnic Groups. American Anthropologist, 57(6), 1240-1252. White, S. (1989). A Question of Style: Blacks in and around New York City in the Late 18th Century. The Journal of American Folklore, 102(403), 23-44. Yitzhaki, S. Schechtman, E. (2009). The Ã¢â¬Å"Melting PotÃ¢â¬ : A Success Story? Journal of Economic Inequality, 7(2), 137-151.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Discuss the Explain the view that the dependence of developing economies on agriculture condemns them to remaining among the worlds poorest nations, Discuss th - Essay Example Cash crops in developing countries are mainly for exports and some of these products include coffee, tea and cocoa, however the oversupply of these products in the global market leads to low prices, high competition in the global market also leads to the low prices of these products. Subsistent crops are produced for the purpose of domestic consumption and the surplus is sold in the local markets, however the products are usually perishables and due to lack of good infrastructure and communication networks products do not reach the market where prices would have been high. The production of both cash crops and subsistence crops is important in these developing countries, cash crops are grown for the purpose of export while the subsistence crops are for local production, however these countries mostly produce the cash crops in large quantities in order to export although these goods do not yield sustainable incomes for the country to develop, there is need to diversify these products. Many developing countries are faced with natural disasters such as draughts and floods, this cause them to import food from other countries when such disasters occur, they lack food security programs that ensure that in years of over production the surplus is stored and these therefore contribute to food shortages, these importation of food products from other countries results to unfavourable balance of payment and unsustainable debts, therefore there is need to initiate a food security program and also an import substitution strategy. Falling food prices in the long term Due to the overproduction of agricultural products leading to high supply levels, the prices of food products falls even to levels below the cost of production, these leads to underdevelopment in the agricultural sector where farmers avoid overproduction of products. Price stabilisation The developing countries